Providing targeted incentives for trees on farms: A transdisciplinary research methodology applied in Uganda and Peru

Native trees are central elements of sustainable agriculture, providing economic futures to rural populations while safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. We present a diagnostic methodology for (i) identifying ‘incentive opportunities' for farmers to plant and manage trees on farms; (ii) proposing targeted packages of incentive and finance instruments; and (iii) describing levers for policy integration to support their implementation. In two case studies from Uganda and Peru, the ‘incentive opportunities' consist of providing technical and financial support to farmers for planting and managing trees, generating income sources from native trees and support from the beneficiaries of tree-based ecosystem services, and eliminating incentives for tree removal. Many instruments to promote trees on farms already exist, but implementation is hampered by weak and fragmented institutions, limited funding and low political priority. The proposed methodology can guide the development of incentive instruments as part of implementing policy strategies for integrated biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.

    Publication Type

    Journal articles

    Publication year



    , Escobar M M, Khan S J, Borasino E, Kihumuro P, Okia C A, Robiglio V, Zinngrebe Y


    Agroforestry, Finance, Governance, Policy instruments, Subsidies, Ecosystem services, Biodiversity


    Uganda, Peru

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