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All PES Publications

  • Southgate, D. & Wunder, S. (in press). Paying for watershed services in Latin America: A review of current initiatives. Journal of Sustainable Forestry (accepted).
    Link to Abstract

  • Wunder, S. & Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S. (in press). Payments for ecosystem services: a new way of doing forest conservation. Journal of Sustainable Forestry.
    Link to Abstract

  • Blanco, J.T., Wunder, S. Navarrete, F. 2008. La experiencia colombiana de pagos por servicios ambientales, In: S.C. Ortega (ed.), Reconocimiento de los Servicios Ambientales: Una Oportunidad para la Gestión de los Recursos Naturales en Colombia, pp.109-117. Bogotá: Minambiente, UASPNN, WWF, CI, TNC, 203 pp.

    PDF Complete file : Spanish

  • Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S., Kongphan-Apirak, M. & Wunder, S. 2008. Reducing forest emissions in the Amazon Basin: A review of drivers of land-use change and how payments for environmental services (PES) schemes can affect them. CIFOR Working Paper #40. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR, 26 pp.
    PDF Complete file : English

  • Wunder, S. 2008. Necessary conditions for ecosystem service payments. Paper presented to the conference Economics and Conservation in the Tropics: A Strategic Dialogue. Moore Foundation/ CSF/ RFF, San Francisco, Jan 31 – Feb 1. Conference Paper Series,

  • Kindermann, G., Obersteiner, M., Sohngen, B., Sathaye, J., Andrasko, K., Rametsteiner, E., Schlamadinger, B., Wunder, S., & Beach, R. 2008. Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (30): 10302-10307 doi: 10.1073/pnas.0710616105,

  • Wunder, S. 2008. How should we deal with leakage? In: A. Angelsen (ed.) Moving ahead with REDD: issues, options and implications, pp. 67-76. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR.

    PDF Complete file : English (size 2 MB).

  • Micol, L., Andrade, J., Boerner, J., with R. dos Santos & S.Wunder 2008. Redução das emissões do desmatamento e da degradação (REDD): potencial de aplicação em Mato Grosso. Alta Floresta: Instituto Centro de Vida (ICV), 92 pp.
    Link to ICV website

  • Asquith, N.M., Vargas, M.T. & Wunder, S. 2008. Selling two environmental services: In-kind payments for bird habitat and watershed protection in Los Negros, Bolivia. Ecological Economics 65 (4): 675-684.
    Link to Abstract

  • Asquith, N. & Wunder, S. (eds). 2008. Payments for Watershed Services: The Bellagio Conversations. Santa Cruz de la Sierra: Fundación Natura Bolivia.
    PDF Complete file : English (size 4.6 MB)

  • Börner, J.& Wunder, S. 2008. Paying for avoided deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: from cost assessment to scheme design, International Forestry Review 10 (3): 496-511.
    Link to Abstract

  • Engel, S., Pagiola, S., & Wunder, S. 2008. Designing payments for environmental services in theory and practice: an overview of the issues. Ecological Economics 65 (4): 663-674.
    Link to Abstract

  • Frost, P.G.H., & Bond, I. 2008. The CAMPFIRE programme in Zimbabwe: Payments for wildlife services, Ecological Economics 65 (4): 776-787.
    Link to Abstract

  • Wunder, S. 2008. Payments for environmental services and the poor: concepts and preliminary evidence. Environment and Development Economics 13 (3): 279-297.
    Link to Abstract

  • Wunder, S. & Albán, M. 2008. Decentralized payments for environmental services: the cases of Pimampiro and PROFAFOR in Ecuador. Ecological Economics 65 (4): 685-698
    Link to Abstract

  • Wunder, S., Campbell, B., Frost, P.G.H., Iwan, R., Sayer, J.A., & Wollenberg, E. 2008. When donors get cold feet: The community conservation concession in Setulang (Kalimantan, Indonesia) that never happened. Ecology and Society, 13 (1): 12; URL: 
    Link to Abstract

  • Wunder, S., Engel, S., & Pagiola, S. 2008. Taking stock: a comparative analysis of payments for environmental services programs in developed and developing countries. Ecological Economics 65 (4): 834-852.
    Link to Abstract

  • Wünscher, T., Engel, S. & Wunder, S. 2008. Spatial targeting of payments for environmental services: a tool for boosting conservation benefits. Ecological Economics 65 (4): 822-833.
    Link to Abstract

  • Börner, J. & Wunder, S. 2007. Divergent opportunity costs of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) on private lands in the Brazilian Amazon, Poster presented at Forest Day, UNFCCC-COP, Bali.
    e-Files: PDF file : English  

  • Dillaha, T.; Ferraro, P.; Huang, M.; Southgate, D.; Upadhyaya, S.; and Wunder, S. 2007. Payments for watershed services: regional syntheses, USAID PES Brief 7. Blacksburg, VA: SANREM-CRSP, Virginia Tech (OIRED)

  • Seymour, F. & Wunder, S. 2007. The things money can buy. Science Alert Australia New Zealand, Opinion, 12 Dec

  • Southgate, D. & Wunder, S. 2007. Paying for watershed services in Latin America: A review of current initiatives, Working Paper No. 07-07, July 2007. Blacksburg, VA: SANREM-CRSP/ USAID, Virginia Tech (OIRED)

  • Engel, S.; Wünscher, T. & Wunder, S. 2007. Increasing the efficiency of conservation spending, In C.B.Schmitt, T. Pistorius and G.Winkel (eds). A Global Network of Forest Protected Areas under the CBD: Opportunities and Challenges, Proceedings of an international expert workshop held in Freiburg, Germany, May 9-11, 2007. Freiburg Schriften zur Forst- und Umweltpolitk 16. Remagen, Germany: Verlag Kessel, 151p. ISBN 3-935638-90-6

    e-Files: PDF file : English

  • Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S. & Wunder, S. 2007. Innover pour protéger: les paiements des services environnementaux, ch.9 in Regards sur la Terre – L’Annuel du Développement Durable 2008, pp.217-230.
    Link to Abstract

  • Wunder, S.; Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S. & Moreno-Sánchez, R. 2007. Pago por servicios ambientales: una nueva forma de conservar la biodiversidad Gaceta Ecológica, 84-5 (2-5), pp.39-52, (Instituto Nacional de Ecología, México).
    Link to Abstract

  • Kanninen, M.; Murdiyarso, D.; Seymour, F.; Angelsen, A.; Wunder, S. and German, L. 2007. Do trees grow on money? The implications of deforestation research for policies to promote REDD, Forest Perspectives #4, Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR, viii+61p, ISBN 9789791412421.
    e-Files: PDF file : English (size 1.1 MB)

  • Wunder, S. 2007. The efficiency of payments for environmental services in tropical conservation. Conservation Biology. 21 (1): 48-58.
    Link to Abstract (see also this commentary)

  • Ibarra, E. 2007. The profitability of forest protection versus logging and the role of payments for environmental services (PES) in the Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Forest Policy and Economics 10 (1): 7-13.
    Link to Abstract

  • Wunder, S. & Seymour, F. 2007. Seeing REDD to save the forests and the planet. Op-ed The Canberra Times, 14 Dec,

  • Frost, P.G.H. and Bond, I. 2006. CAMPFIRE and payments for environmental services. Markets for Environmental Services Report Number 9. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
    e-Files: PDF Complete file : English (size 145 KB)

    Also available online at URL:

  • Wünscher, T., Engel, S., & Wunder, S. 2006. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: increasing efficiency through spatial differentiation, Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 45 (4): 317-335.
    Link to Abstract

  • Wunder, S. 2006. Are direct payments for environmental services spelling doom for sustainable forest management in the tropics?? Ecology & Society 11 (2):23, online:

  • Wunder, S. 2006. Between purity and reality: taking stock of PES schemes in the Andes, Editorial, The Ecosystem Marketplace, Katoomba Group, 1 (4), 31 Oct 2006, online at:

  • Wunder, S. 2006. Pagos por servicios ambientales: Principios básicos esenciales. CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 42 Spanish. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR, 24 pp..
    e-Files: PDF Complete file : Spanish (size 1.3 MB)

  • Wunder, S., Bui Dung The, & Ibarra, E. 2005. Payment is good, control is better: why payments for forest environmental services in Vietnam have so far remained incipient. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR. 61 pp.

    e-Files: PDF Complete file : English (size 2.8 MB)

  • Robertson, N. & Wunder, S. 2005. Huellas Frescas en el Bosque: Evaluación de Iniciativas Incipientes de Pagos por Servicios Ambientales en Bolivia. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR. xi, 150 pp.

    e-Files: PDF Complete file : Spanish (size 2.0 MB)

  • Robertson, N. & Wunder, S. 2005. Fresh tracks in the forest: assessing incipient payments for environmental services initiatives in Bolivia. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR. xii, 137p.

    e-Files: PDF Complete file : English (size 2.0 MB)

  • Wunder, S. 2005. Payments for environmental services: some nuts and bolts. CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 42. 24p.
    e-Files: PDF Complete file : : English (size 0.7 MB)

  • CIFOR. 2005. Payments for environmental services: some nuts and bolts. CIFOR Infobrief No. 9. 4 pp. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR.
    e-Files: PDF Complete file : English (size 0.3 MB)

  • Wunder, S. & Vargas, M. T. 2005. Beyond "markets" - why terminology matters, March 2005, (Guest Editorial, The Ecosystem Marketplace, Katoomba Group).


  • Grieg-Gran, M., Porras, I. & Wunder, S. 2005. How can market mechanisms for forest environmental services help the poor? Preliminary lessons from Latin America. World Development 33 (9): 1511-1527.
    Link to Abstract

  • Nasi, R., Wunder, S., & Campos, J. J. 2002. Forest Ecosystem Services: can they pay our way out of deforestation? Discussion paper prepared for the GEF for the Forestry Roundtable, UNFF II, Costa Rica, March 11, 2002. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR, 29 pp. plus appendices.
    e-Files: PDF Complete file : English (size 2.8 MB)