Who profits from forest fires? Herry Purnomo, a scientist with the Center for International Forestry Research, said unclear land tenure and insecure concessions were at the root of the problem, alongside land politics that allow "strong, powerful people" to benefit from the burning. His analysis shows that when land is cleared by cutting down trees, it generates profits of $665 per hectare, shared between the farmer groups who do the work, local elites who organise the groups, village heads and others. If land is burned, the benefits rise to $856 per hectare, as it is faster, cheaper and leaves peat soil in a better condition for planting. When planted with oil palm over a three-year period, the figure rises to $3,077 per hectare. In every scenario, it is local elites who receive at least half of the profit. "The fires have been happening for 20 years, and I don't believe the governments are stupid, so I suspect that people are trying to influence the government not to have enough budget to stop them, because fires benefit (various) people," Purnomo said.