Managing trade-offs between conservation and development at the landscape scale projects

  • Biodiversity in landscape mosaics

Locations: Cameroon, Indonesia, Laos, Madagascar and Tanzania

Duration: 2007–2010

Funder: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation

Objective: To develop mechanisms for landscape level maintenance of biodiversity and livelihoods through participatory action research, focusing on four themes: livelihoods, governance, biophysical landscape, and incentives.

  • Biodiversity monitoring in Laos: From theory to practice

Location: Laos

Duration: October 2008–May 2010

Funder: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation

Objective: To complement ongoing research on landscape mosaics in Laos by developing a biodiversity monitoring system which could be integrated into participatory landscape unit planning of forest landscapes. This will include assessing existing practices and then developing and monitoring a system based on local information. The main beneficiaries will be the local communities, land use planners at the district level and national institutions working on these approaches.

  • Building organisational capacity to achieve improved biodiversity conservation and human well-being outcomes in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos

Locations: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam

Duration: July 2006–June 2009

Funder: MacArthur Foundation

Objective: To examine initiatives which implement an integrated conservation and development approach in protected area forest landscapes in the lower Mekong. This project relies on capacity building of field practitioners and knowledge sharing between the scientific and the practitioner communities. Both are essential to achieve conservation and livelihood improvement goals.

  • CGIAR–Canada linkage fund

Locations: Cambodia and Laos

Duration: 2008–2011

Funder: Canadian International Development Agency

Objective: To improve the ways government agencies and conservation and development organisations conceptualise and assess the impacts of their work. The research will synthesise the growing body of theory and experience with monitoring and evaluation of outcomes, with an emphasis on participatory and indicators-based methods. It will develop lessons from the experience to date and produce clear guidelines for different kinds of conservation and livelihoods monitoring and evaluation.

  • Economic analysis of conservation schemes for forest biodiversity in Cameroon

Location: Cameroon

Duration: 2008–2011

Funder: French Agency for Cooperation and Development

Objective: To assess current forest policies in Cameroon by comparing their respective monetary costs and benefits. The research will assess whether a monetary value can be placed on biodiversity in an African rural context, given the market economy is not predominant. It will also assess the impact of conservation methods implemented outside specific conservation schemes. The research will help other countries in the Congo Basin.

  • Forest fire management in India: Integrating ecological and cultural contexts and consequences

Location: India

Duration: February 2008–July 2009

Funder: University of Freiburg

Objective: To examine the correlation of fire occurrence with different forest types, and assess the effects of fires of varying frequency on forest structure and functioning, using satellite imagery and other available data. In addition, we will also document people’s perceptions about the role of fire in their livelihoods, and the sociocultural and economic drivers of fire occurrence. Analysing and disseminating this information will help us and other key stakeholders to identify the reasons for forest fires, their link to existing forest formation, and their role in the supply of ecosystem services.

  • Guinea–Sierra Leone transboundary biodiversity and conservation programme

Locations: Guinea, Sierra Leone

Duration: April 2006–September 2009

Funder: US Agency for International Development

Objective: To work closely with the governments of Guinea and Sierra Leone on the formalisation of comanagement of classified and other protected forests through legislative review and formalisation of agreements between communities and government institutions. Monitoring of livelihood and biodiversity indicators enables long-term assessments of progress to be made.

  • In-support gathering, analysing, exchanging and disseminating information relating to promoting and enhancing sustained biodiversity conservation and other environmental services in Ecuador and Colombia

Locations: Ecuador, Colombia

Duration: January 2007–December 2009

Funder: MacArthur Foundation

Objective: To work with 5–6 small-scale payments for environmental services (PES) projects at different development stages and provide applied recommendations in the design, promote the dialogue among these project implementers, and take some of the implementation lessons to the level of national policy making, including the design of nationwide PES schemes.

  • Learning to be responsible: Addressing social, economic and environmental issues for social responsibility of forest-based businesses

Location: Kutai National Park, Kalimantan, Indonesia

Duration: July 2007–September 2009

Funder: Ford Foundation, Jakarta

Objective: To examine how business social responsibility programs in the forest sector can contribute to sustainable forest management and better livelihoods for people who depend on forests. The project was implemented in the Kutai National Park. Six extractive business corporations were contributing funds to the park through an alliance called Mitra TN Kutai. Through action research we aligned Corporate Social Responsibility planning of individual corporations and the Mitra TN Kutai to the conservation needs of the park. In the process we also strengthened park management through team building and collaborative planning activities.

  • Livelihoods and landscapes strategy: Simulation modelling

Locations: Brazil, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, east Africa, Ghana, Indonesia

Duration: April 2008–December 2010

Funder: World Conservation Union, Asia Programme

Objective: To facilitate workshops to help LLS geographic component teams to build simulation models of livelihood and land cover change in their landscapes and to better understand the underlying causes of change and explore scenarios for the future. In addition, training will be provided in the use of modelling techniques for exploring landscape scenarios and continuing technical support will be provided to the geographic teams via email and through field visits.

  • Rights and resources

Locations: Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, Nicaragua, Philippines

Duration: 2007–2009

Funder: International Development Research Centre, Canada

Objective: To use action research to assess people’s rights and resources in these 10 countries. It has examined a range of issues, including conflicts between local customary and formal legal systems of tenure; LIFE indicators (Livelihoods, Income, Forest Quality, and Equity); and various changes in land tenure policies. Current activities focus on the production of an edited book, with comparative analysis across sites, and a synthesis document.

  • Saving the remaining orangutan population and their habitat within and surrounding the Danau Sentarum National Park, Indonesia


Location: Indonesia
Duration: 2010-2012
Funder: US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Great Ape Conservation Fund
Partners:  Riak Bumi Foundation and Danau Sentarum National Park Authority
To support existing research and knowledge of the Orangutan population and their habitat within the Danau Sentarum National Park region, including the strengthening of local law enforcement; capacity building of national park staff and local NGOs in research methods; building a pilot collaborative conservation management model to improve forest governance; and reducing overall threats to Orangutans from illegal trade and logging.

  • Scaling up payments for watershed services

Locations: Bolivia, Ecuador, India, South Africa

Duration: January 2008–December 2009

Funder: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

Objective: To explore ways that small-scale pilot watershed protection projects, which use payments for environmental services (PES), can be scaled up to higher levels. The project aims to influence project implementers and policy makers in making informed decisions about the optimal spatial and temporal scale of watershed PES, including through joint analysis and cross-site visits of implementers, policy makers and politicians.

  • Support to disseminate research and promote policy dialogue and learning exchange about community forestry in Guatemala and Nicaragua

Locations: Guatemala, Nicaragua

Duration: July 2008–July 2009

Funder: Ford Foundation, Mexico

Objective: To follow up research activities on tenure change and community forestry. In Guatemala, a series of workshops and discussions were organised in the Peten and the highlands as well as two exchange visits for representatives from each region to spend several days sharing experiences and learning about the other. In Nicaragua, the main follow-up involves a series of discussions of the research results in light of new ecological and institutional conditions: Hurricane Felix caused significant damage to forest in the North Atlantic Autonomous Region in September 2007. The project also includes the production of policy briefs in each region.

  • Makala Project: Sustainable management of fuelwood in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Locations: Kinshasa and Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo
Duration: February 2009–January 2013
Funder: European Union
Partner: French Agricultural Research Center for International Development (CIRAD), Fondation Hanns Seidel, University of Gembloux, University of Kisangani
Objective: To respond to increasing domestic energy needs in central Africa and to highlight the risks of unsustainable use of forest resources. The project aims to  develop a clear institutional framework to ensure the sustainable use and management of fuel wood from natural and plantation forests; improve the transformation technologies and use of wood and charcoal; and encourage better local management, through improved uptake of new knowledge and techniques.
Email Jolien Schure at
Go to the Makala project website in French:

  • Valuable and vulnerable: Promoting local innovations and sustainable management of forest resources in the Brazilian Amazon

Location: Eastern Amazonia, Brazil

Duration: September 2006–May 2011

Funder: Tinker and Wood and Wayside International (WWI)

Objective: To assist rural smallholders to maintain access to valuable and vulnerable tree species, which have growing regional markets, through documentation and promotion of innovative management practices and supportive public policies. This will be achieved by: 1) Evaluating local innovations to secure sustainable production of valuable species; 2) Building capacity to implement innovations in multiple-use forest management; 3) Promoting public policies supportive of rural smallholder resource management; 4) Identification and promotion of locally driven conservation initiatives.


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