Climate change already affects forests and is expected to affect them even more in the future. The effects of climate change add to the many pressures threatening our forests. While some forest services may be enhanced, many more could be lost. Already in the course of this century, forests may have turned from a net carbon sink to a net carbon source, potentially releasing huge additional quantities of carbon into the atmosphere. The impacts of climate change onforests will have far-reaching social and economic consequences, particularly for poor people who depend on forests that often serve as a safety net during times of economic and ecological hardship.Given the diversity of the worlds forests and the needs of their stakeholders, there seems to be no magic answer for forest adaptation. Some forests maybe lost entirely. Nevertheless, forest managers can rely on effective and locally appropriate tools that can help conserve forests and sustain the mix of ecosystem services they provide, even within a changing climate. More than that, forestecosystems affect us all. Sustaining them can play a key role in reducing social vulnerability far beyond the forest sector.