The Cuvette Centrale peatlands of the Congo Basin are an extremely rich natural resource, providing a wealth of ecosystem services at local, regional, and global levels, notably in the form of vast carbon storage in the rich peat soil. Currently, there is neither peatland-specific legislation, policy, or strategy nor a clear national definition of a peatland in the Republic of Congo (Congo). In an effort to strengthen the conservation and sustainable management of peatlands, a review of international and national legal texts was completed by the Institut Cerveau Vert 2063 (a legal clinic that contributes to the implementation of the African Union’s Agenda 2063), highlighting the main legal texts likely to apply to peatlands. This policy brief first emphasizes key international agreements ratified by Congo and regional initiatives relevant to peatlands. It then describes the main existing national legal texts related to the use, management, and protection of peatlands in Congo and provides recommendations to strengthen existing legislation and guide the development and implementation of a national peatland strategy.