This study identifies challenges and examines the needed interventions to achieve sustainability, especially those focusing on smallholders and at the subnational jurisdictional level. Interventions are defined as incentives, disincentives, and/or enabling measures through initiatives, programs, and policies with goals and aims for sustainability. This study addresses the following questions: (1) What are the challenges related to sustainability faced by the palm oil sector? and (2) what are the key interventions needed to lift jurisdictions/districts and especially independent smallholders to sustainability? Based on a literature review of studies conducted in Indonesian and Malaysia and focus group discussions and interviews with key stakeholders, this study identifies challenges and some key interventions that can support jurisdictions, particularly smallholders, in transitioning to sustainability.