Ecosystem services and social equity: Who controls, who benefits and who loses?

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Key messages

  • Stakeholders have different roles in the co-production of ecosystem services, e.g. they can be direct or indirect managers or beneficiaries.
  • There are mismatches between those who manage and those who depend on or benefit from ecosystem services.
  • Different forms of inequities are tied to these roles and can threaten the resilience of socio-ecological systems.
  • Power asymmetries influence stakeholders’ roles in relation to ecosystem services, including their participation in ecosystem services governance.
  • Insights into roles, power and inequities can be useful for designing participatory governance mechanisms.


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