Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) were hailed as a “silver bullet” to provide the economic incentives to conserve standing forests, while contributing to local livelihoods. While the livelihood benefits of NTFPs have been widely acknowledged, the contribution of the NTFP sector to biodiversity conservation is less certain. Despite increasing skepticism of the ability of NTFPs to contribute to conservation, their promotion and development remains a readily implemented tool for many site level conservation projects. However, this chapter dispels certain assumptions related to NTFP sustainability and the links between NTFP extraction systems and conservation. We conclude that the links are generally tenuous to say the least and suggest that, despite the value of NTFP-based systems to rural livelihoods, our perceptions of the relative value of NTFPs in terms of biodiversity conservation need to be revised.