West African forest and savannah ecosystems contain important biodiversity that provides numerous goods and services to local people. However, these landscapes are increasingly under enormous anthropogenic pressures, leading to habitat fragmentation and the concomitant loss of biological diversity. Climate change further constrains the conservation of natural resources (Dimobe 2017) and associated challenges of food insecurity and poverty have made the sustainable management of tropical landscapes an urgent priority (Reed et al. 2016; Barlow et al. 2018).