A methods toolbox for integrated landscape approaches

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In recent years, there have been numerous articles that identify core elements and principles of what constitute “landscape approaches” (Sayer et al. 2013; Freeman et al. 2015; Reed et al. 2016; Ros-Tonen et al. 2018; Carmenta et al. 2020). However, guidance on methods to design and evaluate initial activities required for implementation are largely missing and many practitioners are essentially “shooting in the dark” when it comes to application (Sunderland et al. 2012).

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