Theories of change and monitoring and evaluation types for landscape approaches

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As highlighted in previous chapters, landscapes and sub-national jurisdictions such as states, provinces, municipalities or districts are increasingly recognized as strategic levels of governance for climate and sustainable development action. Such action, characterized as landscape approaches supposedly lead to improved effectiveness in finding locally acceptable compromises in terms of environmental, social and economic outcomes through broad stakeholder engagement and removing misalignment and inconsistencies between interests regulations and incentives (DeFries and Rosenzweig 2010; Reed et al. 2016).
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