The tropics represent a particular area of concern for conservation and development as they have endured unprecedented levels of environmental degradation, limited development relative to temperate areas, and have high concentrations of extreme poverty and malnutrition (Curtis et al. 2018; Song et al. 2018). The stakes are very high, as the tropics also host a disproportionately large share of global biodiversity with areas vulnerable to climate change (Barlow et al. 2018).