Agriculture is the main activity in Tshopo province and concerns about 84% of households. In the postconflict context of the Democratic Republic of the Congo where the country needs to use agriculture for food and employment, responses to climate change protection of biodiversity hotspot as it is the case in the Tshopo province cannot be ignored. The current agricultural practices are still very vulnerable to climate change and are threatening the biodiversity and carbon stock of the Tshopo forest landscapes. The challenges of the state and other stakeholders are thus to improve the productivity of this agriculture and make it resilient with less carbon footprint. Such 3 pillars (increase of productivity, provide adaptation and mitigation responses) correspond to CSA (Climate Smart Agriculture) that need to be achieved in an integrated way. Unfortunately, from the review at the national level and at the Tshopo principal scale, activities in which agriculture is involved target mainly one/two main objectives (food security, mitigation, adaptation or Biodiversity conservation) during a well-defined period and specific geographical locations. CSA could thus be a potential frame to improve the sustainability of the agricultural sector in the Tshopo Province, in the center of Congo Basin.