Indonesia and Peru harbor some of the largest lowland tropical peatland areas. Indonesian peatlands are subject to much greater anthropogenic activity than Peru's resulting in high GHG and particulate emissions.
We explored patterns of impact in both countries and compared predisposing factors. Impacts differ greatly among Indonesian regions and the Peruvian Amazon in the order: Sumatra > Kalimantan > Papua > Peru.
All impacts, except fire, are positively related to population density.
Current peatland integrity in Peru arises from a confluence of factors that has slowed development, with no absolute barriers protecting Peruvian peatlands from a similar fate to Indonesia's.
If the goal is to maintain the integrity of Peruvian peatlands, government policies recognizing unique peatland functions and sensitivities will be necessary.