SDG 1 seeks to “end poverty in all its forms everywhere” specifically by ensuring that the poor are covered by social protection systems; by securing the poor’s rights to economic resources, access to basic services, and property ownership; and by building their resilience to economic, social and environmental shocks. The empirical literature shows that more secure property rights – especially for community land – and social protection in the form of cash transfers can support forest conservation, given the right context and conditionalities. As demonstrated by programs that reforest hillsides and mangroves to prevent natural disasters, policies designed to reduce vulnerability can promote ecosystem-based adaptation, including expansion of forest cover. This is consistent with the evidence that forests are both a mainstay of rural livelihoods and a buffer and source of natural insurance. However, if poverty alleviation and national development strategies continue to be based on infrastructure and agricultural development, they are likely to remain in conflict with the conservation and sustainable management of forests.