In this chapter, we review current scientific understanding and hypotheses at seven system delineations that build up from the level of a ‘tree’ interacting with water, to that of a social-ecological system at the scale of landscapes. A system delineation separates internal entities that interact dynamically from external entities that may have a one-way influence but are not significantly influenced by feedback from within the system boundaries. Each system level has its characteristic outcomes or results.
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Irena F. Creed and Meine van Noordwijk (eds.). 2018. Forest and Water on a Changing Planet: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Governance Opportunities. A Global Assessment Report. 27-60
International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO)
van Noordwijk, M.; Creed, IF.; Jones, J.A.; Wei, X.; Gush, M.; Blanco, J.A.; Sullivan, C.A.; Bishop, K.; Murdiyarso, D.; Xu, J.; Claassen, M.; McNulty, S.G.; Ellison, D.