In 2016, Indonesia’s oil palm plantations reached an area of 12.3 million ha, of which 38.6% or 4.8 million ha were smallholder plantations and approximately three-quarter were identified as independent smallholders. Independent smallholders are the most un-productive oil palm producer group in Indonesia experiencing high compliance barriers caused by different abilities to adopt good agricultural practices, access to input produc-tion and formalize operations. Using Central Kalimantan as a case study, research intend-ed to contribute to efforts to unpack the diversity of independents oil palm farmers in In-donesian. We found 6 different typologies obtained by cluster analysis. Further analysis shown each typology has different sustainability index. Sustainability performance is closely related to knowledge and experience thus influence the ability and motivation to implement and conform to the sustainability standard. Our findings suggest focusing on the sensitivity of each typology to perform selective upgrade and simultaneous control of the smallholder expansion.
Rilus A. Kinseng, Arya Hadi Dharmawan, Djuara Lubis, Annisa Utami Seminar (eds.). 2019. Rural Socio-Economic Transformation: Agrarian, Ecology, Communication and Community, Development Perspectives. 3-16