Peat fires in Indonesia are recognized as national emergencies, and are a source of regional haze and associated health, environmental and economic impacts. Fire smog has high levels of air pollution (both small particle densities and heavy metals) and has led to the premature mortality of those in vulnerable social sectors. The majority of fires that affect millions of people in Indonesia and neighboring countries are located in districts in Sumatra and Kalimantan and are linked to peatland disturbance (i.e. drainage), increased accessibility, and land use transformation. In contrast to the past, fires are now occurring in years with normal rainfall levels, suggesting a possible shift towards temperaturecontrolled fires and the role of land degradation in promoting fire occurrence (fire risk) and fire spread (fire danger).