In comparison with Indonesia, Uganda and Nepal, Peruvian law provides a weak mandate for tenure reform implementers to address conflict, and Peru has the lowest number of implementing officials stating that addressing conflict is among their responsibilities.
In the villages studied, Peru reports the highest proportion of villagers involved in land or forest conflicts, the highest proportion with actors external to the community and the lowest portion resolved.
Despite the legal significance of a land title, collective titling alone does not assure the end of land/forest disputes with outsiders. The state needs to defend the property rights that it has recognized.
Peru must improve its legal framework for conflict management in land/forest disputes both in and after formalization processes, drawing on state and customary, community or alternative mechanisms.