Results-based payment, REDD+’s innovative feature, has largely gone untested. International funding (both public and private) remains scarce, and demand through carbon markets is lacking.
REDD+ helped forests gain prominence on the international and some national policy agendas. National REDD+ initiatives improved countries’ monitoring capacities and understanding of drivers, increased stakeholder involvement, and provided a platform to secure indigenous and community land rights. Local REDD+ initiatives have achieved modest but positive outcomes for forests. Well-being impacts have been limited and mixed, but are more likely to be positive when incentive components are included.
For REDD+ to be effective, forest-based mitigation needs to be incorporated in national development and climate action plans, and mainstreamed across sectors and levels of government. A strong positive narrative on how forests contribute to economic development and climate goals can support this integration.