About 12 million ha of land in the Peruvian Amazon are titled to more than 1300 native communities
Titling has been slowed because of overlapping claims and lack of clarity in institutional structures.
Gaining title does not ensure full rights to use of forest resources, because forest management requirements are costly and complicated.
Throughout the last 50 years, the greatest challenge to recognition of native communities' rights to the lands and forests in the Amazon has come from economic development policies.
Sustainable, equitable development in the Amazon requires evaluating Peru's development model, which emphasizes foreign investment in extractive industries, as it undermines indigenous and community rights as well as international commitments to sustainability.