Oil palm development is a major subject in controversies over sustainable agriculture. Economic benefits are very high due to the crop characteristics and its impact on smallholder development and economic growth. Producer countries have targeted oil palm expansion to meet national and global demands for food and energy. However, oil palm development also has considerable environmental costs in the form of deforestation, loss of biodiversity and greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, the concept of sustainable pathways is used to describe how sustainability issues are being addressed in three different countries: Indonesia, Colombia and Cameroon.