Indonesia has committed to provideenergy to all its population through the National Energy Policy (Kebijakan Energi Nasional). The policy highlightsthe importance of diversification, environmental sustainability, and enhanceddeployment of domestic energy resources. Diversified energy supply shouldinclude oil, coal, gas, and new-and-renewable energy (NRE). The contribution ofNRE to the nation’s energy supply is mandated to reach 23% by 2025. Indonesiahas also made commitments internationally to align energy provision withsustainability, as stated by the President of Indonesia at the Twenty-firstConference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on ClimateChange in 2015, along with a commitment to further reduce net greenhouse-gasemissions. Bioenergy is an important renewableenergy alternative. It is defined as energy produced from plant biomass and plant-derivedresidues and waste (Souza et al 2015). Modern bioenergy carriers include liquidbiofuels-such as bioethanol and biodiesel-as well as solid biofuels, biogas andbioelectricity (http://www.ebtke.esdm.go.id/).Bioenergy sources include forests, crops, livestock and urban and industrialwaste. The use of biomass resources requires integration with multipleactivities in rural and urban areas.