The trade-offs in multi-purpose land use

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Ecosystem health is directly addressed in several SDGs, while it is an implicit requirement in others. With an expanding population and developing economies, the pressure on land for food production has been relentless and has often led to the loss of other essential ecosystem services (ESSs). Unsustainable pressure on natural resources threatens the very ecosystem services on which the global food system depends (Howe et al., 2014). Thus, conserving natural resources is fundamental to sustainable production in the long term, especially given the vulnerability of agriculture and fisheries to climate change (Berry et al., 2006).

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