Generalizations about gender and forests are misleading; detailed, comparative studies are needed to understand important contextual differences not only among world regions but also, as demonstrated here, within countries, among different cultures.
Gender biases lead men to underestimate women's work related to forests and overestimate their benefits and role in decision making, relative to women's own estimates.
In Nicaragua, forest resources, particularly firewood, are important for the vast majority of rural households studied; indigenous households, as well as indigenous women specifically, use and benefit from a much larger variety of forest resources than non-indigenous communities.
Of all the forest products mentioned by respondents, men extract more than women, except for craft materials in some locations.
Indigenous women are much more involved in the sale of forest products than non-indigenous women and are more likely to control the income from the products they sell.