Various policy instruments have been developed to address environmental, social and economic issues in forest governance. Public governance instruments include command-and-control instruments and policies that influence forests either directly or indirectly. Voluntary instruments by non-state actors include various certification schemes and commodity roundtables. These policy instruments do not work in vacuum but interact throughout the regulatory process, where they can complement, substitute, and antagonize each other. At the same time there are global processes as well as innovations that contribute to changing the forest governance regimes at national level.
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Pavel Castka and Danna Leaman (eds.). 2016. Certification and Biodiversity - How Voluntary Certification Standards impact biodiversity and human livelihoods. 73-90
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)
Savilaakso, S.; Cerutti, P.O.; Montoya-Zumaeta, J.G.; Ruslandi