This document is part of CIFOR's series of REDD+ country profiles. It analyzes the case of Burkina Faso: the drivers of deforestation, the institutional environment and revenue distribution mechanisms, the political economy of deforestation and forest degradation, the political environment of REDD+, and the implications of the current REDD+ design for effectiveness, efficiency and equity. The analysis is based on reviews of existing literature, national and international data, legal reviews and selected expert interviews. Burkina Faso is a Sahelian country, and was selected as a participant in the Forest Investment Program because of its substantial potential for carbon sequestration from dry forests and its extensive experience in the participatory management of natural resources. Our findings indicate that a crucial trade-off for policies that have sought to maximize economic and social benefits is widespread deforestation and forest degradation (for example, those regulating cotton production, agribusiness and the mining sector). While Burkina Faso is unique as a dry forest country among the REDD+ countries, the overall challenges for successful development and implementation of REDD+ are widely shared with many other REDD+ countries: the improvement of the institutional and governance context; the coordination of actions across sectors and actors; the participation and commitment of the key stakeholders across all levels; the improvement of the monitoring, recording and verification system; and the careful design of an equitable benefit-sharing mechanism. However, realizing synergies with adaptation will be crucial for the success of REDD+ in Burkina Faso, as forests and trees play a fundamental role in adaptation to climate change and climate variability.