This systematic review of literature on gender and value chains of forest, tree and agroforestry (FTA) products examined gender differences and inequalities in FTA value chains, factors that influence these differences, and interventions to foster greater gender equity.
There is limited information available on gender in FTA value chains, and a strong bias in the literature towards African countries.
Gender differences in participation mainly owe to social-cultural factors, including gendered access rights, and to the physical nature of value chain activities.
Cultural norms and overlapping customary and formal regulatory arrangements often position men in more favorable positions than women in FTA value chains.
Interventions in FTA value chains largely focus on enhancing women’s participation and benefits, but rarely consider the relationships between men and women.
Raising awareness of gender biases, relations and potential trade-offs among those involved in value chains and those supporting inclusive value chain development should accompany technological innovations, and should occur across multiple stages of the value chain.