There is a “virtual shift” of agricultural lands from Europe, East Asia and North America to South America, Africa and Southeast Asia, and a “virtual shift” of forests in the reverse direction through reforestation and afforestation initiatives.
The expansion of under-utilized lands (e.g. abandoned land, degraded land, low productivity land) has been the key driver of carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change from 1995-2010.
The carbon stock loss attributable to agricultural exports has increased drastically; from below 10% before 2000 to 17-30% since 2000.
Territorially confined programs to mitigate carbon stock loss do not necessarily contribute positively to global carbon stock change, and may trigger different types of negative displacement and leakage effects.