The ecosystem services concept has been proposed as a response to threats to biodiversity. It is based on a utilitarian view of nature, complementing other conservation strategies--ecosystem services are seen as a way of mitigating climate change and as an adaptive strategy for societies. However, the question remains as to how ecosystems will continue to provide those services in a time of rapid climate change. Most biological communities are disappearing due to climate change combined with other anthropogenic pressures, affecting the functionality of ecosystems that are close to collapse. Rather than maintaining existing ecosystems intact, the focus should be on recognizing their dynamic nature and protecting the functions and services they provide.