Measures to tackle corruption in Indonesia can inform the design of benefit-sharing mechanisms (BSMs) for REDD+ in five main areas: (i) designing for transparency and accountability; (ii) ensuring participation of all stakeholders; (iii) matching appropriate levels of authority with their function; (iv) strengthening coordination between institutions; and (v) factoring costs into the design.
Information and communication technology (ICT) has strengthened accountability and transparency in anti-corruption measures. It can be used to: (i) limit any direct interactions between officials and the public that offer opportunities for bribery (particularly in licensing); (ii) trace suspected violations; and (iii) simplify processes and shorten procedural times. ICT may be useful for REDD+ BSMs in registering beneficiaries, reconciling transfers and documenting impacts for monitoring and evaluation.
Strong coordination between institutions and ministries is key for both anti-corruption measures (ACMs) and BSMs, as both involve multiple sectors and governance levels. Coordination can be strengthened by: (i) involving local governments in design, implementation and monitoring; (ii) spreading responsibility among all relevant institutions; (iii) establishing an institution with sufficient authority to serve as a facilitator; and (iv) providing sufficient resources for coordination.
ACMs can benefit from a facilitating institution with both investigative and punitive authorities to oversee and resolve corruption and to mediate conflicts. However, care should be taken to maintain (i) a power balance between investigative and punitive functions; and (ii) oversight of the institution within the design. This would be an important factor to consider in the management of a REDD+ BSM system.