The Government of the UK and Norway have supported the production of an independent report to help inform the decision-making process on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) at the upcoming United Nations climate change negotiations in Doha in December 2012. The long-term viability of REDD+ depends on altering business-as-usual activity in sectors currently driving greenhouse gas emissions from forests. This synthesis report investigates activities (drivers) that lead to deforestation and forest degradation. It explores the relevance of drivers in REDD+ policy development and implementation, key interventions to address driver activity, the role of drivers for national forest monitoring and for developing REDD+ forest reference (emission) levels. It concludes with recommendations intended to support the on-going international climate negotiations, as well as country-level plans and interventions to affect drivers of deforestation and forest degradation.