Indonesia's natural forest, which has traditionally been the main and cheapest source of wood, has been deforested and degraded at an alarming pace. In response to a decreasing wood supply from natural forests and high demand for wood, forest plantations - including smallholder plantations - have been increasingly established by different actors (e.g. government and private industries). These plantations also provide ecosystem services and represent new livelihood options for Indonesia's large population of rural poor. However, the tree planting programs have often failed to take into account the socio-economic and perceptional diversity of the local people involved. The lack of understanding for these issues has contributed to poor levels of success of such initiatives. As a result, the targets set to establish certain areas of plantations have not been reached, and the productivity and quality of the established plantations are generally far from reaching their full potential.