This paper aims to provide an overview of the methods and approaches which may be generally applicable across a wide variety of contexts and at different levels of biological organization in order to perform vulnerability assessments to enable users define relevant issues and provide adaptation options to minimize biodiversity loss due to climate change. The first section of this paper relates on assessing a system's vulnerability to climate change. Its first part considers stresses to the system in question and the second part considers the ability of the system to adapt. Then, as a response to the assessment, this paper concludes with a range of policy and management options. Adaptation options for selected ecosystem types (forests, marine and coastal areas, inland waters, traditional agroecosystems, and mountain and arctic areas) are given.
Tropical forests and adaptation to climate change:in search of synergies. Adaptation to climate change, sustainable livelihoods and biological diversity, Turrialba, Costa Rica, March 2004