Farm household characteristics determine the success of programs promoting agroforestry systems and practices. This paper reports household and farm factors affecting the adoption of timber management practices by smallholders in the Gunungkidul region, Central Java, Indonesia. The research used three logistic regression analysis models—based on each household and farm characteristic, and a composite of both together—to identify the key factors influencing farmers' adoption and management decisions, and their relative importance. A sample of 152 farmers who managed their trees primarily for timber production was compared to a sample of 115 farmers with similar socio-economic characteristics who did not. The household condition and composite models identified both on-farm and off-farm gross incomes as significant factors affecting farmers' decisions to manage timber trees. The models confirmed that farmers with larger farms, and with higher on- and off-farm incomes, were more likely to manage their trees for timber production. These results have implications for extension programs that promote adoption of commercial timber management by smallholders in the case study and similar regions.