REDD+ Benefit Sharing aims to provide policy options and guidance for the design, development and implementation of REDD+ benefit-sharing mechanisms.As REDD+ is based on conditional rewards for reducing carbon emissions, it requires a system to designate who gets rewarded, why, under what conditions, in what proportions and for how long. Such systems are known as benefi t-sharing mechanisms, a broad term that encompasses all institutional means, structures and instruments for distributing fi nance and other net benefi ts from REDD+ programs. Benefit sharing is important for creating the necessary incentives to change deforestation and forest degradation behaviors and thus reduce carbon emissions. However, if stakeholders do not see the system as fair, it will threaten the legitimacy of, and support for, REDD+. A well-designed benefit-sharing mechanism can also support the effectiveness of forest management and increase the effi ciency of REDD+ programs. Our work on benefi t sharing builds on fi ndings from the fi rst phase of CIFOR's Global Comparative Study on REDD+. It examines the opportunity, transaction and implementation costs of REDD+ at national and subnational levels, as well as multilevel governance and rights.