In Amazonia, certain native fast-growing timber species perform well in local smallholder management systems. Fast-growing timber from second-growth forests and fallows is an important source of income for local producers. Bolaina (Guazuma crinita) timber has an established national market. The species is an exceptional case of potentially sustainable smallholder forest management and timber production, processing and marketing. Opportunities for small-scale forest managers and farmers to improve their livelihoods by producing and selling timberare limited by the lack of a supportive legal framework. Policies and regulations on timber harvesting and trade should facilitate markets for timber sustainably produced in smallholder forests.