Analysing REDD+: Challenges and choices

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This is the third book in a series of highly recognised REDD+ volumes from CIFOR. It provides an analysis of actual REDD+ design and early implementation, based on a large research project – the Global Comparative Study on REDD+ (GCS), undertaken by CIFOR and partners. It takes stock of national, subnational and local REDD+ experiences, and identifies the political and practical challenges to designing and implementing effective, efficient and equitable REDD+ policies and projects.Key conclusions are:   As an idea, REDD+ is a success story: It is a fresh approach generating hope of significant result-based funding to address an urgent need for climate change mitigation. The idea has been sufficiently broad to serve as a canopy, under which a wide range of actors can grow their own trees.REDD+ faces huge challenges: Powerful political and economic interests favour continued deforestation and degradation. Implementation must be coordinated across various government levels and agencies; benefits must be distributed and need to balance effectiveness and equity; tenure insecurity and safeguards must be genuinely addressed; and transparent institutions, reliable carbon monitoring and realistic reference levels are all required to support result-based systems.REDD+ requires – and can catalyse – transformational change: New economic incentives, new information and discourses, new actors and new policy coalitions have the potential to move domestic policies away from the business as usual trajectory. REDD+ projects are hybrids in high deforestation areas: Project proponents are pursuing strategies that mix the enforcement of regulations and support to alternative livelihoods (ICDP) with result-based incentives (PES). Projects tend to be located in high deforestation and high forest carbon areas, yielding high additionality if they succeed.‘No regret’ policy options exist: Despite uncertainty about the future of REDD+, stakeholders need to build political support and coalitions for change, invest in adequate information systems, and implement policies that can reduce deforestation and forest degradation, but are desirable regardless of climate objectives.Table of Contents: 1 Introduction
Part 1. Understanding REDD+2 Seeing REDD+ through 4Is
3 The evolution of REDD+
4 REDD+ and the global economy
Part 2. Implementing REDD+5 Politics and power in national REDD+ policy processes
6 Multiple levels and multiple challenges for REDD+
7 Financing REDD+
8 Who should benefit and why?
9 Tenure matters in REDD+
10 REDD+ projects as a hybrid of old and new forest conservation approaches
11 Local hopes and worries about REDD+ projects
12 Site selection for forest carbon projects
Part 3. Measuring REDD+ performance13 Performance indicators and REDD+ implementation
14 Baselines and monitoring in local REDD+ projects
15 Emissions factors
16 A stepwise framework for developing REDD+ reference levels
17 REDD+ safeguards in national policy discourse and pilot projects
18 Summary and conclusions: REDD+ without regrets

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