Despite greater participation of communities in forest management in Uganda, women have been largely shut out of decision making. More women need to take up leadership positions so that they are better able to set the agenda. Formal forest-user groups (unlike informal ones) appear to elevate the quality and extent of women's participation in decision making in forest management. Better information and finances could enable women to participate more effectively in the management of forest resources in the country. Women represented only 5% of political and technical leadership positions in the three study districts. There is a clear need for affirmative action. District and sub-county technical staff and political leaders need training in gender issues. Educated women are often not particularly good at representing womens' needs: their urban elite lives are too different from the lives of poor, rural women.