This final chapter seeks to synthesise key discussions and conclusions from the preceding chapters. Each chapter deals with a specific dimension of NTFP use and management, but when read together, offers a revealing overview of the discourses, debates, and dilemmas associated with the use and promotion of NTFPs over the past two to three decades. Here, we capture this bigger picture through the development of an integrated understanding of these issues and debates. While unpacking broadly applicable lessons and generalisations, we also attempt, given the varied profiles and contexts of NTFPs, to go further through questioning how an integrated understanding stands up to scrutiny as local and global circumstances change. This is particularly pertinent as the key foundations underlying the policy and functional value of NTFPs change. Lastly, we consider some of what we perceive to be the key areas that need investigation or resolution over the coming decade.