Forest fires are socio-ecological events that occur in conjunction with long-term dryness, land clearing, commercial logging, and other livelihood activities. The effects of forest fires are wide-ranging, and it is therefore difficult to effectively evaluate their social, economic and health effects at local and global scales. This global comparative study on deforestation and peatland degradation focuses on the impact of fires in the Russian Far East and Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The aim of the research is to gain a comprehensive understanding of local and regional socio-ecological and resource-use systems, to accurately estimate the social and economic drivers and impact of fire and haze in the region and to develop local forest fire reduction and mitigation plans. The project is implemented by an interdisciplinary research team involving experts from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan and CIFOR with in-country partners in the Russian Far East and Indonesia.