Indonesia just witnessed extreme fire events. The Government of Indonesia, specifically the President, is committing to address the fire and haze issue. Companies have been making commitments for more sustainable production of oil palm, including commitments to prevent and fight fires. In this landscape of new commitments and new sense of urgency, this proposed action aims to reduce fire and haze in Indonesia and increasingly seeks to shift the emphasis from firefighting to fire prevention. The key for sustainable outcomes orientates around the question of what to do with the peatlands: both pristine and degraded. Building on phase 1 research, this action will help identify which actors are responsible for the fires, what sorts of networks and land acquisition models are prevalent and how do they relate to fire and what are the barriers to more successful interventions (e.g. social norms, incentives, legal failures, governance failure, institutional capacity etc.)?