The aim of the project is to slow deforestation rates in tropical areas by contributing to the development and evaluation of market and non-market mechanisms and the institutions needed to change stakeholder behaviour. This research will provide support to international policy-makers by providing information about the relevant assumptions and external factors which shape these institutions. Expected outputs: 1. Documenting the diversity in social, cultural, economic and ecological drivers of forest transition and conservation, and the consequences, in the contexts of selected case study areas in Indonesia, Vietnam, Cameroon, and Peru 2. Quantifying rates of forest conversion and change in forest carbon stocks 3. Improving GHG accounting (methods, default values) 4. Identifying and assessing viable policy options addressing the drivers of deforestation 5. Analysing scenarios in selected case study areas of the local impacts of potential international climate change policies on GHG emission reductions, land use and livelihoods. 6. Developing new negotiation support tools and using these with stakeholders at international, national and local scales to explore a basket of options for incorporating REDD into post-2012 climate agreements.