Various factors contribute to the difficulty of creating an appropriate and durable tenure foundation for REDD+. Tropical forests are rife with contestation dating back centuries, and REDD+ subnational initiatives are often deliberately located where contestation is active (i.e. at the agricultural frontier and other places under threat of conversion). In addition, REDD+ proponent organizations often attempt to resolve, at the level of the site in question, tenure problems that are national in origin and scope.
Recognizing early that tenure would be a major challenge for REDD+, Module 2 has given substantial attention to this subject. One publication explains why tenure is key to fulfilling climate and ethical goals in REDD+ (Sunderlin 2014). A special section of the journal World Development contains three articles on early efforts to prepare tenure in REDD+: an overview article examines proponent efforts to make tenure preparations at our sample of sites (Sunderlin et al. 2014); the linkage between tenure and compliance with environmental laws in Brazil is explored in Duchelle et al. (2014); and Resosudarmo et al. (2014) look at whether tenure security can lead to REDD+ effectiveness in Indonesia. An article by Awono et al. (2013) explores tenure and participation in REDD+ initiatives in Cameroon, and Dokken et al. (2014) ask if there is insufficient attention to community dynamics in tenure preparations for REDD+ in Tanzania. A variety of other writings examine the prospects for successful tenure arrangements in a wider context (Sunderlin et al. 2009; Larson 2010; Sikor et al. 2010; Larson et al. 2012; Larson et al. 2013).