Since 1992, Vietnam has begun to emphasise forest protection and development, both through its laws and national government programs as well as through REDD+. We conducted a legal study on the distribution of powers affecting forests, land use and REDD+ across levels and sectors. It outlines the legal mandates held by national government and local , provincial, district and commune governments with regard to land and forests, including forest classification; land ownership; allocation of agricultural land to households and individuals; allocation of planned forest land; transfer of forests; establishment of natural conservation areas; right to carbon/emission credits; and illegal land use activities. It also outlines citizen participation mechanisms. Additional multilevel research in Vietnam includes an analysis of fiscal incentives, policy learning and carbon effectiveness.
Multilevel governance at the landscape scale
The study of multilevel governance at the landscape scale in Vietnam collected primary data through more than 100 interviews from eight cases of increasing and decreasing carbon emissions located in the province of Dien Bien and Nghe An (see Table 1). We developed detailed histories of land-use changes, on REDD+ pilot sites, payment for forest environmental services (PFES ) sites, hydropower development sites, reforestation (plantation) sites and rubber plantations . We also detailed community-based management practices, each with varying impacts on carbon emissions. We interviewed the constellation of actors associated with each land-use change, as well as regional and local government representatives from those jurisdictions. The research also examined the types of benefit-sharing arrangements established in the project areas and the legitimacy of their design processes. Reports on this work include a country synthesis, policy briefs and forthcoming journal articles.
Table 1. Location, type and number of case studies in Vietnam
|Decreasing emissions cases||Increasing emissions cases|
|Vietnam||Dien Bien province||2||2|
|Nghe An province||2||2|