Exclosures are used as a means of rehabilitating degraded communal lands in Ethiopia. Communities get onsite and offsite products and services such as fodder, honey, fuel wood, water for irrigation to improve their livelihoods. There are, however, a number of drawbacks that prevent wider adoption of the approach, including poor regeneration and slow rate of rehabilitation across agro-ecologies, much lower economic gains from rehabilitated lands, unclear responsibility sharing mechanisms, lack of clarity on ownership rights, joint objective setting, benefit sharing mechanisms and equity in benefit sharing.
Improvements are needed to facilitate its wider use and to maximize the ecosystem services. The study presented in this session evaluated the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of nine exclosure sites from three agroecological zones identified as successful. Through focus group discussions, key informant interviews and a formal survey of 324 randomly selected farmers, researchers identified institutional, legal, and socioeconomic factors that affect the outcomes of exclosures. In this session, analysis results are presented, bringing insights on factors affecting adoption and successful implementation, including: community ownership through participation in planning and management, design of appropriate legal frameworks, tenure and use rights, benefit sharing, and monitoring. Discussion follows on the relevance of the findings to potential expansion of the use of exclosures, with attention to what measures could maximize opportunity and avoid damaging externalities.
"Exclosures as a communal forest land rehabilitation model in Ethiopia: Lessons from the Tigray Region"