CIFOR Publications RSS CIFOR Publications RSS Sun, 20 Apr 2014 08:52:27 -0700 Sun, 20 Apr 2014 08:52:27 -0700 <![CDATA[Smallholder Specialization Strategies along the Forest Transition Curve in Southwestern Amazonia]]>

Rural specialization strategies can be examined within the forest transition framework. We compared smallholder livelihood strategies between neighboring southwestern Amazonian sites at different stages along the forest transition curve. Surveys of 243 households in Pando, Bolivia and Acre, Brazil, within and outside of two major protected areas, confirmed a higher reliance on forestbased income in forest-rich Pando than in Acre. In Acre, forest reliance was higher in the protected area than outside, where forest cover was lower and households were more livestock-dependent. Country context and protected area status were critical to explaining different smallholder specialization strategies in similar biophysical environments.

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<![CDATA[Tenure and Forest Income]]>

We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that stateowned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited to formal owners we find negative associations for stateowned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible negative implications for smallholder forest income.

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<![CDATA[Environmental Income and Rural Livelihoods]]>

This paper presents results from a comparative analysis of environmental income from approximately 8000 households in 24 developing countries collected by research partners in CIFOR’s Poverty Environment Network (PEN). Environmental income accounts for 28% of total household income, 77% of which comes from natural forests. Environmental income shares are higher for low-income households, but di erences across income quintiles are less pronounced than previously thought. The poor rely more heavily on subsistence products such as wood fuels and wild foods, and on products harvested from natural areas other than forests. In absolute terms environmental income is approximately ve times higher in the highest income quintile, compared to the two lowest quintiles.

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<![CDATA[Forest clearing in rural livelihoods]]>

This paper examines the factors that influence rural household decisions to clear forestland. We use a large dataset comprising 7172 households from 24 developing countries. Twenty-seven percent of sampled households had converted forest to agriculture during the previous 12 months, clearing on average 1.21 ha. Male-headed households with abundance of male labor, living in recently settled places with high forest cover, unsurprisingly tended to clear more, but regional peculiarities abounded. Households with medium to high asset holdings and higher market orientation were more likely to clear forest than the poorest and market-isolated households, questioning popular policy narratives about poverty-driven forest clearing.

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<![CDATA[The challenge of establishing REDD+ on the ground: Insights from 23 subnational initiatives in six countries]]>

This CIFOR Occasional Paper presents research results on challenges experienced by proponents in their efforts to establish REDD+ subnational initiatives in Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia, and Vietnam. On the basis of in-depth interviews with 23 organizations collaborating in CIFOR’s Global Comparative Study on REDD+, it was found that the biggest challenges are tenure and the (currently) disadvantageous economics of REDD+. The study observes several patterns connected with these challenges. Performance-based conditional incentives are judged important but are not as central as once envisioned. Although most organizations are forging ahead with REDD+ in spite of the difficulties, some are drifting away from the label “REDD+.” Most of the organizations rely heavily on “integrated conservation and development” as a mode of operation, which enables them to move forward in anticipation of more favorable conditions for REDD+, but raises questions about whether REDD+ will fulfill its promise as an innovative and more effective form of conservation. The study proposes some options for overcoming the main challenges, and observes that there are some grounds for hope that REDD+ can eventually turn the corner and fulfill its potential for greatly reducing deforestation and forest-based carbon emissions.

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<![CDATA[Social impacts of the Forest Stewardship Council certification]]>

This Occasional Paper assessed the social performance of nine forest management units (FMU) certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and compared it with the performance of nine similar noncertified FMUs in Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo and Gabon. Results showed that the longer one company remained in one place, the deeper social relations with the neighbouring population became. This in itself is conducive to an environment in which there is less conflict between the local population and logging companies. However, it is usually only after companies decided to pursue certification that several practical social improvements occurred. In particular, in certified FMUs, this study found better working and living conditions for workers and their families; more inclusive and better governed institutions for negotiations between the local population and logging companies, except with regard to conflict-resolution mechanisms; better managed and more effective benefit-sharing mechanisms; and innovative ways of dealing with problems related to infringement of customary uses.

The complex historical and political-economic reality in which certification has developed in the Congo basin might well make issues of attribution and causality difficult to clarify. Yet results help establish a clear boundary that currently exists between certified and noncertified timber: The former is sourced in FMUs that implement not only legally mandated social standards but also voluntarily adopted ones that are superior and more effective.

There should of course be no complacency from the FSC or logging companies with certified FMUs in comparing themselves with the ‘bottom,’ as the logic of the FSC is to reward more responsible forest managers who are assessed against ever-evolving standards, irrespective of the quality of national legislation. But one should also not forget that companies with certified FMUs in the study countries are competing less against a theoretical global logging company than against their neighbours, who daily produce the same species and sell on similar markets, albeit with much lower investments, especially those targeted to improve social performance. In this very competitive and uneven playing field, and with the scarce price premiums obtained so far, the evidence presented indicates that certification in the Congo basin has been able to push companies toward remarkable social progress.

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<![CDATA[Impacts sociaux de la certification du Forest Stewardship Council]]>

Ce document occasionnel a évalué la performance sociale de neuf unités forestières d’aménagement (UFA) certifiées par le Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) et l’a comparée à la performance de neuf autres UFA similaires mais non certifiées au Cameroun, en République du Congo et au Gabon. Les résultats montrent que plus une société reste longtemps dans un lieu, plus les liens sociaux avec la population sont solides, ce qui favorise un environnement dans lequel il y a moins de conflits entre ce deux acteurs. Cependant, ce n’est en général qu’après la décision des entreprises d’obtenir la certification que l’on a constaté de réelles améliorations sociales. Cette étude a notamment constaté dans les UFA certifiées de meilleures conditions de vie et de travail pour les travailleurs et leurs familles ; des institutions plus inclusives et mieux gouvernées pour les négociations entre la population locale et les entreprises forestières, sauf en ce qui concerne les mécanismes de résolution de conflits ; des mécanismes de partage des bénéfices mieux gérés et plus efficaces ; et des manières innovantes de régler les problèmes liés à l’exercice souvent illégal de certains droits coutumiers.

La réalité historique, politique et économique complexe dans laquelle s’est développée la certification dans le bassin du Congo pourrait bien être à l’origine de la difficulté à expliquer les problèmes d’attribution et de causalité. Pourtant, les résultats aident à tracer la frontière claire qui existe actuellement entre le bois d’oeuvre certifié et non certifié : le premier provient des UFA qui appliquent non seulement des normes sociales légalement autorisées, mais également celles adoptées volontairement qui sont supérieures et plus efficaces.

Il ne faut pas que le FSC et les sociétés certifiées soient complaisantes en se comparant à des UFA non certifiées, qui à l’heure actuelle sont moins bien gérées. En effet, toute la logique de la certification FSC est d’évaluer les gestionnaires forestiers plus responsables avec des normes toujours plus performantes, quelle que soit la qualité de la législation nationale. Mais il ne faut pas non plus oublier que les entreprises avec UFA certifiées dans les pays de l’étude sont chaque jour en concurrence avec des entreprises non certifiées qui produisent les mêmes espèces et vendent sur des marchés similaires, mais avec des investissements beaucoup plus faibles, en particulier pour l’amélioration de leur performance sociale. Dans ce domaine très concurrentiel, et avec les primes limitées obtenues jusqu’ici, les résultats présentés indiquent que la certification dans le bassin du Congo a été en mesure de pousser les entreprises vers un progrès social significatif.

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<![CDATA[Brazilian Development Cooperation in Agriculture]]>

This study forms part of a greater project, New South–South Development Trends and African Forest, carried out in Gabon, Mozambique and Cameroon. In Mozambique, the project focused on the Brazilian– Japanese–Mozambican trilateral program ProSavana. At the time the study began, there was little information or previous work on the topic. This paper should therefore be treated as a scoping study. During the course of this scoping study, only a few papers based on field research were published, and the initial findings of this study are largely in line with this research. This paper supplements the existing literature by adding depth from field interviews in Nampula and Zambezia as well as an examination of the draft ProSavana reports, which became available in May 2013. This paper finds large misconceptions about what the ProSavana program is and what agrarian models will be implemented under the program. The ProSavana program team’s inadequacy in effectively communicating the program’s mission, methods and content has led civil society to look to PROCEDER for clues as to how ProSavana will play out in Mozambique. However, the findings from field visits, interviews with a range of stakeholders and a review of ProSavana project documents reported in this paper are that ProSavana will not be a replica of PROCEDER and the strategies proposed do align well with Mozambique’s agrarian strategy, known as PEDSA, and by extension the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). ProSavana must therefore be evaluated on its own merit.

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<![CDATA[Lessons from Payments for Ecosystem Services for REDD+ Benefit-Sharing Mechanisms]]>

Where benefits and costs accrue at different scales, financial intermediaries are needed to facilitate relations between global-scale buyers and local-scale providers of carbon sequestration and storage. These intermediaries can help to collect and distribute payments and to promote the scheme to potential beneficiaries. The benefits distributed should compensate for the transaction, opportunity and implementation costs incurred by stakeholders for providing ecosystem services. Therefore, calculating the costs and understanding who incurs them are essential for benefit sharing. Targeting benefits according to a set of criteria that match the objectives of the specific mechanism increases the mechanism’s efficiency. As the level of performance-based payments may not be able to compete with the opportunity costs of highly profitable land uses, performance-related benefit-sharing mechanisms should be focused on areas with moderate opportunity costs. Benefits should be divided into upfront payments to cover startup costs and to give an initial incentive for participation, and payments upon delivery of ecosystem services to ensure adherence to conditionality.

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<![CDATA[The developmental implications of Sino-African economic and political relations]]>

This scoping study evaluates the nature, scope, and scale of Chinese trade and investment relations in the primary sector of mineral-rich Zambia. It details how, despite diplomatic ties dating back to the liberation struggle of the 1960s, economic and political relations between the two countries matured only over the 2000s. This has focused primarily on the mining sector, with Chinese companies, many of which are state owned, investing heavily in mineral prospecting, copper mining and smelting, and associated (service) industries. With most investment activities targeting the mining sector, contrary to popular perception, China’s direct participation in other primary sectors, such as forestry and agriculture, is negligible. With Zambia’s economy long struggling under external debts, Chinese investments have made a valuable contribution to Zambia’s economic recovery. Most significantly, capital injections in the mining sector have led to a rehabilitation of dilapidated mining infrastructure, while enhancing the country’s production capacity through the construction of new processing facilities and the development of greenfield mines. These investments have proven to be more stable and less subject to commodity price fluctuations than their Western counterparts. Moreover, while Chinese investors are widely criticized for their poor corporate performance, on most labor-related and environmental dimensions, Chinese mines perform on-par with industry averages. Chinese investors do appear more inclined to rely on close relations with the Zambian government and geographic clustering with other Chinese investors to forge a favorable and stable operating environment, which could adversely impact on their social responsiveness and government revenue generation. However, early evidence appears to contradict many of the long-held assumptions about Chinese economic and political participation in resource-rich countries.

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