Attempting to recreate
the original forest ecosystem by reassembling the original complement
of plants and animals that once occupied the site.
David Lamb, 1994
Work necessary to restore a facility to the original
constructed condition or to an acceptable condition concerning any
damage resulting from natural or human causes, which exceeds that
which normally occurs during annual maintenance.
USDA Forest Service, 1997
Restoration is the process of repairing damage
to the diversity and dynamics of ecosystems. Ecological restoration
is the process of returning an ecosystem as closely as possible
to predisturbance conditions and functions. Implicit in this definition
is that ecosystems are naturally dynamic; it is therefore not possible
to recreate a system exactly. The restoration process reestablishes
the general structure, function, and dynamic but self-sustaining
behavior of the ecosystem. Restoration differs from rehabilitation
in that restoration is a holistic process not achieved through the
isolated manipulation of individual elements. While restoration
aims to return an ecosystem to a former natural condition, rehabilitation
implies putting the landscape to a new or altered use to serve a
particular human purpose.
To re-establish the presumed structure, productivity and species
diversity of the forest originally present at a site. The ecological
processes and functions of the restored forest will closely match
those of the original forest.
Gilmour, D.A. et
The process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem
that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed
Society for Ecological
A management strategy applied in degraded primary forest areas.
Forest restoration aims to restore the forest to its state before
degradation (same function, structure and composition).
(Restored natural/secondary forest)
Restored forest, through either planting or/and seeding, or through
natural regenerating process, where restoration aims to create a
species mix and ecology approaching that of the original natural
Poulsen, J. 2002
(Forest Landscape) Restoration
A planned process that aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance
human wellbeing in deforested or degraded forest landscapes.
WWF and IUCN, 2001
To re-establish the presumed structure, productivity
and species diversity of the forest originally present at a site.
(In time, the ecological processes and functions of the restored
forest will closely match those of the original forest).
UNEP World Conservation
Monitoring Center website
The process of intentionally altering a site to
establish a defined, indigenous, historic ecosystem. The goal of
this process is to emulate the structure, function, diversity, and
dynamics of the specified ecosystem.