Using one or more
exotic species to achieve stability and productivity. That is, there
is no attempt to restore any of the original biodiversity at the
David Lamb, 1994
Returning disturbed lands to a form and productivity
that will be ecologically balanced, often in conformity with a predetermined
USDA Forest Service,
To recover productivity at a degraded site using
mostly exotic tree species. The original biodiversity is not recovered
although the protective function and many of the original ecological
services may be re-established.
Gilmour, D.A. et
Gain of land from the sea, or wetlands, or other
water bodies, and restoration of productivity or use to lands that
have been degraded by human activities or impaired by natural phenomena.
To recover productivity (but little of the original
biodiversity) at a degraded site. In time, the protective function
and many of the original ecological services may be re-established.
Reclamation is often done with exotic species but may also involve
UNEP World Conservation
Monitoring Center website
The process designed to adapt a natural ecosystem to serve a utilitarian
human purpose. It may put a natural ecosystem to a new or altered
use, most often using introduced plants. It is often used to refer
to processes that replace native ecosystems and convert them to
agricultural, mining or urban uses.